It's back to school time!!
Upon becoming the secretary of education of Massachusetts in 1837, Horace Mann (1796–1859) worked to create a statewide system of professional teachers, based on the Prussian model of "common schools." Prussia was attempting to develop a system of education by which all students were entitled to the same content in their public classes. Mann initially focused on elementary education and on training teachers. The common-school movement quickly gained strength across the North. Connecticut adopted a similar system in 1849, and Massachusetts passed a compulsory attendance law in 1852. Mann's crusading style attracted wide middle-class support. Historian Ellwood P. Cubberley asserts:
No one did more than he to establish in the minds of the American people the conception that education should be universal, non-sectarian, free, and that its aims should be social efficiency, civic virtue, and character, rather than mere learning or the advancement of sectarian ends.
An important technique which Mann had learned in Prussia and introduced in Massachusetts in 1848 was to place students in grades by age. They were assigned by age to different grades and progressed through them, regardless of differences of aptitude. In addition, he used the lecture method common in European universities, which required students to receive instruction rather than take an active role in instructing one another. Previously, schools had often had groups of students who ranged in age from 6 to 14 years. With the introduction of age grading, multi-aged classrooms all but disappeared. Some students progressed with their grade and completed all courses the secondary school had to offer. These were "graduated," and were awarded a certificate of completion. This was increasingly done at a ceremony imitating college graduation rituals.
Arguing that universal public education was the best way to turn the nation's unruly children into disciplined, judicious republican citizens, Mann won widespread approval for building public schools from modernizers, especially among fellow Whigs. Most states adopted one version or another of the system he established in Massachusetts, especially the program for "normal schools" to train professional teachers. This quickly developed into a widespread form of school which later became known as the factory model school.
Free schooling was available through some of the elementary grades. Graduates of these schools could read and write, though not always with great precision. Mary Chesnut, a Southern diarist, mocks the North's system of free education in her journal entry of June 3, 1862, where she derides misspelled words from the captured letters of Union soldiers.
By 1900, 34 states had compulsory schooling laws; four were in the South. Thirty states with compulsory schooling laws required attendance until age 14 (or higher). As a result, by 1910, 72 percent of American children attended school. Half the nation's children attended one-room schools. By 1918, every state required students to complete elementary school.
Birthdays/anniversaries we are celebrating this week:
Sunday: Outdoorsman1189 - Cameron from South Carolina
Tuesday: Shocker - John from Pennsylvania
Friday: PAUL BUCELL - Paul from Florida
If it's your birthday/anniversary/special occasion let us know and we will celebrate with you.
Welcome to our two newest members!!! I Rage Quit and warlock. Great to have you as part of the HTC Family!!
Chatroom is back!! Join us every Thursday evening at 7:00 CST for chatroom. See what going on with the rest of the HTC'ers. It's also a great place to compare weather reports.
If you have a prayer request you would like to share either add it to this thread or PM me.
*HemiSuperbee - Mark - health concerns
*Rancher - Doug said to take him off the list but I think a quick prayer for his general health issues isn't a bad idea
*BlackTRX - Roy - new cancer diagnosis and recovery from his surgery that he had Friday, May 31st
*Our Hemlins as they return to school
Have a great week!!!